Over the past 40 years of reform and opening up, while China's economy has been growing rapidly, the constraints of the ecological environment on economic development have become increasingly tight, and the structural contradiction between the supply and demand of resources and energy has become increasingly prominent.
In March this year, General Secretary Xi Jinping emphasized during the deliberations of the Inner Mongolia delegation at the Second Session of the 13th National People's Congress that "to maintain the strategic determination of strengthening the construction of ecological civilization and explore a new way of high-quality development oriented by ecological priority and green development", pointing out that the transition to green is the inevitable choice for the future high-quality economic development of our country, and is also the high-quality economic development of our country. Internal needs.
Green transformation is a systematic project involving many aspects, including the green transformation at the macroeconomic level, the green transformation at the national, regional, urban and rural levels, the green transformation of industry at the meso level, and the green transformation of enterprises or individuals at the micro level. The purpose is to match the elements of resources, production and consumption, and to achieve economic and social development and ecological environment protection. Coordination and unity, harmonious coexistence between man and nature. This paper focuses on the green transformation at the macroeconomic level, and holds that the emphasis should be systematically promoted from three aspects: technology, industry and finance.
Firstly, green technology innovation is the engine of green transformation.
To solve the problems of resource saving, pollution control and ecological protection, green technology innovation is needed. Promoting green production and industrial optimization also depends on technological innovation.
Enterprises are not only the main body of green technology innovation, but also the initiator, demander, integrator and implementation of green technology. At present, enterprises should be encouraged to carry out green technology innovation and accelerate the transfer of green technology, and special attention should be paid to improving the intellectual property system.
This is because, on the one hand, as China moves from "imitative innovation" in the period of catching-up economy to "independent innovation" in the innovative economy, the demand for intellectual property protection is constantly rising; on the other hand, many technologies in the green transformation and upgrading of enterprises belong to the field of design and R&D with high added value. Without strict patent and intellectual property protection system, enterprises tend to put these into practice. Technology is strictly confidential, and a sound intellectual property system can speed up the transfer and transformation of green technology between enterprises and industries.
In addition, in the process of green technology innovation, many technological innovation activities need to strengthen cooperation among innovation subjects such as industry, University and research, so as to promote patented technology to continuously produce and enter the market in a more successful and faster way, which is undoubtedly very conducive to promoting the speed of green economic transformation in China.
Secondly, green industry is the focus of green transformation.
There are three main ways to develop green industry:
The first is the green transformation of traditional industries, which requires reducing resource consumption and improving production efficiency. It mainly includes the green transformation of traditional real economy industries, such as manufacturing, agriculture, energy and so on, which have great impact on the environment.
The second is to develop environmentally friendly industries, i.e. the same economic output is accompanied by less resource consumption or negative products, mainly referring to knowledge-intensive industries such as eco-tourism and cultural industries.
Third, the development of green emerging industries, refers to the use of advanced production technology, with less investment in resources, to obtain high output and form a virtuous circle with the environment industry, mainly including intelligent manufacturing, digital industry, new energy industry, new generation of information technology industry. This kind of industry is characterized by high total factor productivity, low environmental impact, high efficiency of resource intensive utilization and strong ability of sustainable development. It is a new momentum of green economic development and is becoming the dominant industry development in the world today.
The government plays an important role in the development of green emerging industries, from early cultivation, planning and guidance, to the introduction of relevant technical standards and financing support, employment training, entrepreneurship counseling and tax incentives to formulate a series of support measures. In the future, China should continue to strengthen the guidance of green industry policy, promote the green upgrading of traditional industries, accelerate the cultivation of green emerging industries, and promote high-quality economic development by green transformation of industries.
Finally, green finance is the booster of green transformation.
Green finance refers to the provision of financial services for project investment and financing, project operation and risk management in the fields of environmental protection, energy conservation, clean energy and green transportation. Its main function is to guide funds to the industries of resource-saving technology development and ecological environment protection, to support green science and technology innovation, and to realize the optimization and adjustment of industrial structure.
In practice at home and abroad, green finance covers green credit, securities market, green fund, green insurance and other financial instruments. The green transformation of economy needs to give full play to the role of various green financial instruments in resource allocation.
On the one hand, we should tilt all kinds of resources to green industry, improve the financing advantages of green project industry, put environmental and resource-wasting enterprises at a disadvantage position in the competition with green industry, and force the industries with backward production capacity of high-polluting industries to transform or withdraw from the market.
On the other hand, green finance should disperse the risks of green technology innovation, provide financial support for the development and application of technology, and improve the ability of enterprises to prevent innovation risks.
The development of green finance in China is relatively late. There are some problems, such as imperfect supporting policies and legal policies, imperfect green financial standards, lack of a unified green project catalogue and green industry identification standards, insufficient participation of financial institutions, and lack of green financial products. In the future, it is urgent to establish an effective green financial system, mobilize and encourage more social capital to enter the green industry and support green innovation.
Source: Chinese Academy of Sciences